A stroke transpires when there is an abrupt disruption in cerebral blood flow, resulting from either a blockage, known as an ischemic stroke or bleeding within the brain, termed a hemorrhagic stroke.

This sudden interruption causes a deprivation of oxygen and essential nutrients to the brain, ultimately culminating in damage or death of brain cells.

The severity of the impairment is contingent upon the extent and duration of the blood flow disruption.

Prompt medical intervention is crucial to mitigate the potentially irreversible consequences of a stroke, as the restoration of blood flow aids in preventing further neurological deterioration and facilitates the recovery process.


• Signs of a stroke include difficulty with speech, such as confusion, slurred speech, or an inability to understand spoken language.

• Numbness, weakness, or paralysis on one side of the face, arm, or leg may occur, with arm drooping or a drooping mouth when attempting to smile being possible indicators of a stroke.

• Visual disturbances, sudden blurred or blackened vision in one or both eyes, or double vision, may also be symptoms.

• A sudden and severe headache could signal a stroke, accompanied by vomiting, dizziness, or altered consciousness.

• Stumbling, loss of balance, or coordination issues may also arise, indicating a potential stroke. It is essential to recognize these signs for prompt medical intervention and effective stroke management.

Causes & Risks

• Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Causes: Stroke can result from a blocked brain artery (ischemic) or a burst blood vessel (hemorrhagic), leading to distinct types of strokes.

• Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): Temporary disruptions in blood flow, known as TIAs, don’t cause lasting symptoms but may serve as warning signs.

• Modifiable Risk Factors: Lifestyle choices like obesity, physical inactivity, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use contribute to stroke risk.

• Medical Risk Factors: High blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and cardiovascular diseases increase susceptibility to stroke.

• Non-Modifiable Factors: Age, race or ethnicity (African American and Hispanic populations at higher risk), sex (men at higher risk), and hormonal influences from birth control or estrogen therapies.

• Additional Risk Factors: Personal or family history of stroke, heart attack, or TIA, along with COVID-19 infection, further elevates the risk profile.

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