Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain, characterised by repeated seizures (A seizure is a sudden alteration of behavior due to a change in the electrical functioning of the brain .

It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body or the entire body and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.


• Staring into space with or without subtle body movements. Seizures may occur in clusters, happening as often as 100 times a day, and could cause a brief loss of awareness.

• Seizures depend on where in the brain the disturbance first started, and how far it spread.

• Symptoms that don’t last too long could be – loss of awareness or consciousness, and disturbances of movement, and sensation – including hearing, taste, mood, or other cognitive features.

• Epilepsy patients generally have more physical problems – such as fractures and bruising from injuries related to seizures, and higher psychological conditions, that include anxiety and depression.

• Premature death in people with epilepsy is up to three times more likely than in the general population, with the highest rates of premature mortality.

Causes & Risks

• Epilepsy may occur as a result of a genetic disorder or an acquired brain injury, such as a trauma or stroke.

• Brain damage from prenatal and perinatal causes e.g. a loss of oxygen or trauma during birth, or a low birth weight.

• Congenital abnormalities with associated brain malformations or stroke or bleeding.

• A stroke that restricts the amount of oxygen to the brain.

• An infection of the brain such as meningitis, encephalitis, or neurocysticercosis, certain genetic syndromes.

• Other causes for Epilepsy could be tumors, strokes, brain damage from illness or injury, or even a combination of these.

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